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Review of Elliott Jacques' required organization book

  Elliott Jacques accounting for the required organization

Style: Enterprise administration
Writer: Elliott Jacques
Title: Deep Work: Requisite Organization (Purchase book)


Summary: [19659005] The organization introduced by Elliott Jacques introduces the idea of find out how to change corporate administration techniques and not try to change individuals. This general system is applicable to every type of corporations – industrial, business, service and public – no matter what measurement it’s.

Jacques' 50-year historical past of organizational and psychological improvement has produced this technique that may help strengthen a more environment friendly business surroundings.

This book has a comprehensive hierarchical system that helps managers achieve effective organization. By accepting the "required organization" features, companies may be extra efficient and aggressive whereas releasing human creativeness, trust and satisfaction at work.

Jacques confirms step by step after which defines the working methods for each organizational layer. Throughout the work, he offers a framework that covers the next subjects:

  • Effects of Human Characteristics at Work
  • Construction of the Required Organization
  • Structure of the Mandate of Authorization
  • The complexity of the position at numerous hierarchical levels
  • Required compensation construction
  • Position relations (or how Individuals Work Together
  • Management Administration Practices • Implementing the Needful Organization

Jacques highlights the present circumstances of most corporations. need for change. He also factors out that "the area of ​​organizational development and management is roughly the same as that of natural sciences in the mid-16th century." opposite to traditional subjective strategies. For example, Jacques presents an objectively structured substitution plan that permits enterprise executives to make use of the level of work they provide to their firm

. He also offers concrete implementation steps in addition to the target organization technique required. The typical time wanted to complete the required organization is 6-2 years, relying on the dimensions of the corporate


Elliott Jacques is taken into account one of the world's leading psychologists. Jacques attended Johns Hopkins Medical Faculty after which acquired his doctorate. Harvard College in Social Relations

Before going out in March 2003, he completed 50 years of analysis in numerous organizations in 15 nations. Jacques is called the "middle life crisis", the transition of id and self-confidence to middle-aged individuals.

Jacques discovered together with his wife Kathryn Cason an objective technique to assess the potential talents of people. This technique has helped to pick the generals of the armed forces by evaluating political leaders and used by the leaders in giant corporations. Jacques's discoveries in social sciences are worthwhile to raised understand how human nature and social establishments work together.


A unbroken socio-political problem exists within the 21st century on how you can build an effective organization that finally achieves success. Many educational professors and professionals consider that this drawback may be solved by simple options: "Be customer-oriented", "Be as Japanese" or "Be excellent; and all in a few minutes".

As well as, Jacques believes that the present area of ​​organizational improvement and administration is about the identical stage within the improvement of pure sciences in the mid-16th century. and processes that result in business efficiency, business effectivity, liberalization of individuals's creativeness, belief, and satisfaction at work. "required organization".

An necessary distinction from the required organization to traditional types is that it follows a scientific strategy. This elementary strategy could make it simpler for business executives to implement the organizational system wanted

To simplify the system, Jacques puts ahead ideas for describing numerous essential elements of an organization.

He suggests that business organizations are referred to as "Leaders of Hierarchies of Responsibility (MAH) because, in the absence of an official name, it contains their essential purpose. Stratified Systems Theory (SST).

SST forms the form of a comprehensive system that is necessary for the leader hierarchies. Jacques' 50-year analysis of organizations in 15 different countries has led to excessive research to support his findings, and business leaders can use this book as a textbook to understand what the efficiency of the organization can be improved.


There are key features to effectively implement the required organization. people involved in the work must promote all motivation, trust and values. These qualities must satisfy the employees in order to avoid an inefficient organization.

Employee motivation comes from two main sources: (1) working at a level where they can use their full capacity and (2) a fair compensation system. In addition, people are looking for effective leadership roles that promote two main sources. Fulfilling these conditions encourages people to enjoy their work and become more efficient.

Trust is another important feature that exists in the required organization.

An average employee spends about 40-50 hours a week at work for up to 40-50 years, it is important to rely on an environment that spends so much of his life. In order to do this from a deeper perspective, men and women spend more waking hours in their relationship with work than they do at home. As a result, the marketing authorization holder should be a confidence-building organization that increases the social health of people.

Values ​​are the sales force of a human being, according to Jacques, the marketing authorization holder.

The values ​​of a person affect what they prefer, what they have attracted, the things they do or fight, and how much they put on something. In addition, values ​​can be mentioned as forces that determine how much a person commits to the role of a marketing authorization holder.

Therefore, it is important that supervisors ensure that people share the necessary values ​​when they are hired for the job they need. company freedom. Equally important organizations need to create organizational values ​​that promote an effective working environment.

In addition to analyzing the key characteristics of people, the required organization needs to look at the skills needed to carry out jobs. This know-how gives the person the opportunity to perform parts of the problem-solving activity without having to think about them. Each marketing authorization holder is a human judgment system where people are given judgment and decision-making.

According to Jacques, a person with higher qualifications is able to make better decisions and therefore should be higher in the organizational structure. In the required organization, lower-level employees do not despise higher-level employees; Everyone is satisfied with their work according to their current potential

Many experts in organizational behavior believe that marketing authorization holders need to change psychological group dynamics to cope with problems such as poor productivity, ineffective employment relationships, and relationships.

Jacques indicates that the method proposed by many professionals is completely ineffective. Instead, marketing authorization holders should make changes to both the structure and management practices to facilitate changes in individuals' behavior.


The simple structure of the simple organization described by Jacques is shown in the table below:

As shown, each layer level represents a requirement for a different time interval range. The time period is a direct measure of the level of work (or layer) of each organization.

In addition, the time period is calculated by looking at the times at which the maximum targets are met by the role that managers set. For example, tasks assigned to a layered operator typically last for 3 months or less

Determining the maximum goal achievement time is one of the most important parts of establishing the required organization. [19659048] In theory, it is easy to calculate. Simply identify the tasks that the administrator gives to the role and identify the task that has the longest goal achievement time. However, it is more difficult to determine this in practice unless you know much about the work required to perform the tasks

As a result, Jacques established the best practice. The manager, who is responsible for the role, should explore the necessary tasks to find repetitive tasks and others. After all, the master must reach the end of the maximum goal. For example, the tasks of some of the highest accountants must be accounting development projects and the development of accounting departments.

At lower levels, accounting roles may include budgeting or credit management projects that take less time to complete. This situation illustrates the importance of personal leadership in calculating the time to reach the maximum goal.

This structure of organizational structures, which is based on a time limit of roles, gives managers the opportunity to objectively review employee efficiency based on the time it takes to perform tasks. In addition, time-time measurement eliminates subjective job rating ratings that make it difficult to determine a fair and simplified pay system.

It is important for the company's CEO to determine the exact definitions for the manager and time-time measurement. 19659048] The required structure shown in the table provides a solution to the clear definition of these terms. However, the total number of layers may change depending on the characteristics of the business.

For example, a company with a lower level of financial analyst grouping over a three-year period (i.e., layer IV) has a total of only four layers – CEO, two midpoints, and bottom financial analysts

The Managing Director of each Marketing Authorization Holder is responsible for integrating all of the following:

  • Improving Products / Services for Customers
  • Producing Goods or Services
  • Acquisition of Materials, Components, etc. for the Production of Products / Services
  • Supply of Goods / Services
  • Handling of Goods / Services to Certain Customers or Customers [19659010] Customer's marketing needs in their entirety and necessary promotions
  • New business development; developing new business types that require new business units (BU) or changing existing businesses
  • Financing policies and priorities
  • Flow priorities: scheduling, resources, business analysis as needed at different levels
  • Human resources, organizational development, compensation, training
  • Methodology of Technology
  • Legal Policy, Legislative Development
  • Public Affairs, Relations with Other Major Organizations as Customers
  • Director: Preparation of Budgets and Accounts
  • Auditing: Ensuring that All Managers Act in All Policies
  • Providing Services : routine recruitment, training, insurance, maintenance, etc.

As mentioned above, each CEO is responsible for the integration of operations. However, aspects of these functions can be acquired from outside the company or transferred to other layers according to the workload. For example, if a company operates in a business environment with only a few customers, marketing does not need to be divided into a lower level.

The CEO could personally do what small marketing has to do. On the contrary, if the work in question is significant, the CEO should create a lower position at the level of the work that is complex and level. All in all, the only function that can never be delegated is the leadership role of subordinate work integration.

To determine the number of layer levels in a business for any activity, start by looking at the outputs they want to produce. This can be done using three simple steps:

  1. Measure the time period of roles at the bottom of the function
  2. Do the same at the top of the task
  3. Determine the layer of each role and calculate the number of layers between

. The complexity of the work level of each role ultimately determines the number of layers in the company. In order for the functions to be effective in the required organization, the functions can then be transferred to lower levels to produce the final product / service or direct return (DO).


For task authorization, a person uses a delegated direct source (DDO): the process of assigning tasks to others as a DO, but still retains responsibility for outputs. Jacques calls the process DDO a "psychologically fascinating state of affairs" because leaders are completely dependent on their subordinates to produce acceptable DOs. It is important to note that there is such a thing that moving to a too low level

Moving a DO to a level lower than a level leads to inadequate or failed products / services. This could be a product / service that takes too long to produce, waste resources or is just of poor quality.

On the contrary, setting the right level will produce a superior product with the utmost resources. The morale of the story: to get the right tasks to the right level of the organization.


A valuable tool that managers acquire is understanding the complexity of the problem. This understanding can help managers identify the current and future potential of the marketing authorization holder. Jacques defines the complexity of the problem "what you must do to realize the aim / activity".

  • Stratum I: Must follow a specific route (as they have been trained) and use practical judgment to overcome obstacles; he must see the leader if the problem cannot be solved
  • Stratum II: Consider potential problems and obstacles. collect data to diagnose and prevent future problems; responsible for Stratum
  • Stratum III: Include the entire process in the plan and, if necessary, obtain alternative planned paths; responsible for Stratums below
  • Stratum IV: Parallel processes with multiple interactive projects and prioritizing them; to compromise between tasks to promote the goal; responsible for Stratums below
  • Stratum V: Links between organization and environment variables; evaluate the effects of changes or events internally and externally; responsible for Stratums below
  • Stratum VI: Developing networks to collect diagnostic information and create an environment for evaluating investment priorities; improve the value of the property (shown in the balance sheet); to promote the long-term success and survival of companies; responsible for Stratums below
  • Stratum VII: Developing and implementing alternative global strategic plans; produces BUs through development, acquisitions, mergers or joint ventures; define international financial resources; Responsible for Stratums below

All in all, understanding the complexity of the problem on each layer is that leaders have a more objective way to measure the level of employee work in their role. If an employee performs all of their complex tasks at the layer level successfully, it can demonstrate promotion.

By contrast, poor employee performance can lead to a reduction or a layoff. This ultimately solves the financial compensation of individuals in the necessary organization.


One of the most controversial topics of 21st century organizations is employee compensation. Jacques defines the structure of compensation in the necessary organization, which should limit confusion and injustice in many organizations.

All people should be paid at a comparable level for similar work, but this is difficult to measure using subjective work assessments.

In addition, the use of the market value as a compensation is not effective because it does not correspond to the level of work required for each position concerned;

Finally, the structure of the rewards by split and / or reward schemes is not effective because it reflects the results achieved and not the individual's personal efficiency and level of work.

In the required organization, people receive compensation for the level of work they achieve. All employees in the same grade receive the same pay.

This provides a fair system in which a person moves to the salary level when their workstation rises, which is determined by their personal efficiency and their judgment.

According to this compensation structure, each layer is divided into three different grades. This makes it possible for managers to reward subordinates progressively and additions.

In addition, this structure avoids paying people based on factors such as gender, race, color, or other feature than the level of work. The basic steps for implementing this structure are listed below:

  1. Put Dollar Values ​​on Each Layer Bound
  2. Fit the Dollar Values ​​for each Rating Limit by Divide Each Layer Limit into Three Layers
  3. Share Salary for Six Grades in each Grade
  4. Move the whole pay gap structure with the change in the national income index

. Again, this structure guarantees that the marketing authorization holder objectively determines a person's compensation based on the level of work. The figure below illustrates the organizational structure of the required organization when it is fully implemented:


Another basic principle of an essential organization is in role relationships. Jacques emphasizes the importance of clarifying and clarifying the required role relationships at all levels.

This includes teaching everyone who takes responsibility and authority in all employment relationships. It is clear that people who carry these concepts facilitate people's access to individuals in their role relationships.

The two main categories of role relationships are the vertical role determination role ratios (TARR) and the cross-functional task that triggers role relationships (TIRRs). In TARR services A is entitled to get B to do something, and A's manager is responsible for B's output. Examples of TARRs are manager-subordinate, leader-deleted (MoR) – subordinated-once-removed (SoR) and project team leader – subordinate.

In TIRR systems A has the right to do B, but the manager of B is responsible for the output of B instead of A. Examples of components of TIRRs include e.g. Coordinating, auditing and defining.

The main drawback is that each of the different examples mentioned by Jacques has varying responsibilities and authority. In both roles, it is assumed that individuals tend to work together effectively, whether they keep each other or not. As a result, clarifying roles leads to mutual trust that facilitates effective collaboration


In addition to an effective management organization, the required organization requires effective leadership leadership. Jacques defines leadership as "the accountability of some who influence a number of others prepared to simply accept the purpose and objectives of the chief and all transfer within the course of the chief."

An efficient leader avoids charismatic (influential) tempting personal qualities) and focuses on maximizing his / her personal experience.

The organizational structure offers a platform for effective management administration, as supervisors are at a better degree than the ones they lead. This avoids the frustration or resistance of the subordinates because they know that their leaders are greater

The explanation why not all organizations have used the required organizational construction is that leaders have an misguided view of what’s the applicable control part. The normal view that Italian leader Graicunas formed within the 1920s says that each leader needs to be beneath 3-6.

This creates too many ranges of organization. In response to Jacques, the best view is that a leader can have any quantity of subordinates, as long as he is aware of for each individual himself. Depending on the state of affairs, the leader might in reality be underneath 1-70, and nonetheless has effective management.

With a purpose to determine how effective management is in an organization, each chief should be sure that each instant subordinate manager works effectively:

  • Is the supervisor frequently meeting the instant subordinates of the Government Group periods?
  • Is the supervisor setting the context and often updating it?
  • Are bidirectional design discussions led by the supervisor ongoing?
  • Is the chief in the context of personal effectivity dialogue and training
  • Is the manager's evaluation of the applicability of subordinates able to stability in the assessments of their colleagues' subordinates
  • ? they do

The important thing to effective leadership leadership stops the three features of the organization:

  1. Provide a set of organizational values ​​
  2. Present the culture you want
  3. Set long-term views and vision

Creating organizational values ​​helps staff determine an organization that will increase mutual organization belief and dedication. The required tradition helps values ​​and defines certain ways to do issues inside the firm.

Finally, setting long-term prospects and vision provides the entire firm the thought of ​​why they carry out totally different tasks. Conducting these three duties together will help to facilitate the required management transition

. The complete implementation of these required organizational tips can take 6 to 2 years depending on the dimensions of the organization.

As a way to facilitate full implementation, the corporate ought to appoint a undertaking officer to watch improvement a minimum of on flooring IV. Subsequent, the company ought to train the thoughts and language of the required organization to a small quantity of individuals (that’s, to the highest of organizations).

Then a restricted trial check is carried out inside the firm or in two compartments, or attempt one part of the leadership all through the company. Lastly, if the pilot testing is successful, then a full-scale organization will begin, beginning on the prime flooring and operating down. Throughout the process, educating / training and coaching / mentoring are vital to allow all the organization to adapt to the new general system.

Jacques' fifty years of research and observations show that implementing the required organizational structure can produce 100% to 200% of the effectiveness of the advertising authorization holder's organization. As described above, this construction might be carried out for corporations of every kind and sizes.

Giving Jacques recommendation and follow might set off progress in organizational improvement and management, with infinite area for progress. Remember of enterprise leaders: this general system described by Jacques will help your small business improve the effectiveness of your organization right here in the 21st century. want to thank buyers for Titans for publishing this content. Titans is a scholar organization based by Britt Harris. For more details about the organization and the man behind it, click on on either of these links

Britt all the time taught us the Titans that knowledge is reasonable, and the top finds great things from the books. We solely hope that we’ll also categorical our because of the Titans if the assessment of the book introduced knowledge to their lives.

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